Research Findings


In a variety of randomized and non-randomized trials, MISSION has been shown to be successful for a myriad of populations, including criminal justice-involved veterans, female offenders returning to the community, and veteran and non-veteran clients who have experienced homelessness. Previous studies examining the efficacy of the MISSION approach have shown improved outcomes related to substance use, psychological functioning, housing, employment maintenance, treatment retention, and use of outpatient services. Below is a chronological list of published work regarding MISSION treatment outcomes and related findings.

Smelson, D. A., Losonczy, M. F., Castles-Fonseca, K., Sussner, B. D., Rodrigues, S., Kaune, M., & Ziedonis, D. (2005). Preliminary Outcomes from a Community Linkage Intervention for Individuals with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Serious Mental Illness. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 1(3), 47-59. DOI: 10.1300/J374v01n03_05

Smelson, D. A., Losonczy, M. F., Ziedonis, D., Sussner, B. D., Castles-Fonseca, K., Rodrigues, S., & Kline, A. (2007). A brief community linkage intervention for veterans with a persistent mental illness and a co-occurring substance abuse disorder. European Journal of Psychiatry, 21(2), 143-152. DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632007000200006

Kline, A., Callahan, L., Butler, M., St. Hill, L., Losonczy, M., & Smelson, D. (2009). The Relationship Between Military Eras Served and Psychosocial Treatment Needs Among Homeless Veterans with a Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorder. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 5(3-4), 357-374. DOI: 10.1080/15504260903175882

Smelson, D., Kalman, D., Losonczy, M. F., Kline, A., Sambamoorthi, U., St. Hill, L., Castles-Fonseca, K., & Ziedonis, D. (2010). A Brief Treatment Engagement Intervention for Individuals with Co-occurring Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Community Mental Health Journal, 48(2), 127-132. DOI 10.1007/s10597-010-9346-9

O’Connor, K., Kline, A., Sawh, L., Rodrigues, S., Fisher, W., Kane, V., Kuhn, J., Ellisson, M., & Smelson, D. (2013). Unemployment and Co-occurring Disorders among Homeless Veterans. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 9(2), 134-138. DOI: 10.1080/15504263.2013.778804

Smelson, D. A., Kline, A., Rodrigues, S., O’Connor, K., Fisher, W., Sawh, L., & Kane, V. (2013). A wraparound treatment engagement intervention for homeless veterans with co-occurring disorders. Psychological Services, 10(2), 161-167. DOI: 10.1037/a0030948

Smelson, D. A., Pinals, D. A., Sawh, L., Fulwiler, C., Singer, S., Guevremont, N., Fisher, W., Steadman, H. J., & Hartwell, S. (2015). An Alternative to Incarceration: Co-Occurring Disorders Treatment Intervention for Justice-Involved Veterans. World Medical and Health Policy, 7(4), 329-348. DOI: 10.1002/wmh3.168

Smelson, D. A., Chinman, M., McCarthy, S., Hannah, G., Sawh, L., & Glickman, M. (2015). A cluster randomized Hybrid Type III trial testing an implementation support strategy to facilitate the use of an evidence-based practice in VA homeless programs. Implementation Science, 10. DOI: 10.1186/s13012-015-0267-4

Smelson, D. A., Zaykowski, H., Guevermont, N., Siegfriedt, J., Sawh, L., Modzelewski, D., Tsemberis, S., & Kane, V. (2016). Integrating Permanent Supportive Housing and Co-Occurring Disorders Treatment for Individuals who are Homeless. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 12(2), 193-201.  DOI: 10.1080/15504263.2016.1174010

Harnish, A., Corrigan, P., Byrne, T., Pinals, D. A., Rodrigues, S., & Smelson, D. (2016). Substance use and mental health stigma in veterans with co-occurring disorders. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 12(3-4), 238-243. DOI: 10.1080/15504263.2016.1245066

Trojano, M. L., Christopher, P. P., Pinals, D. A., Harnish, A., & Smelson, D. (2017). Perceptions of voluntary consent among jail diverted veterans with co-occurring disorders. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 1-10. DOI: 10.1002/bsl.2299